If you're new to crypto, there is quite a few new concepts to become familiar with! This glossary will take you through the most crucial and fundamental terms.
Typically when miners or node validators control 51%
of the total computational power on the blockchain. If 51% is attained those
miners/validators control the blockchain.
A concept in economics in which one entity has a
complete advantage in producing or having the ability to provide a type of good
Means "as the occastion requires"or made for a
specific reason. In Latin it means “For This”.
String of numerals and/or characters that signify a
specific one-time link to a specific wallet that can receive digital assets.
This is USUALLY a transaction of tokens that are sent
to a wallet containing assets to provide awareness for the token being sent.
This was extremely popular in the early days of crypto. As of now you should be
weary, since a lot of the smart contracts connected to airdrops are unsafe.
A process or set of rules to be followed
in calculations or other problem-solving operations, especially by a computer.
All or None Order (AON)
An order that must be sold as a whole or NONE at all.
They remain active until executed.
All-Time High (ATH)
The highest price in which a stock or currency hits
in its longevity or lifetime.
An allotment of tokens or equity, that may be earned,
purchased, or set aside for a certain investor, team, group, organization, or
other related entity.
The first version of a released product. Usually
extremely basic and not fully functional.
Any crypto currency that isn’t Bitcoin.
Individuals who offer new startups funding in
exchange for royalties or equity within the company.
Anti Money Laundering (AML)
Regulatory procedures that are meant to protect both
consumer and businesses alike. There are three stages: placement, layering and integration stage.
Application Programming Interface (API)
A list of definitions for including and integrating
application software. Basically lets products and/or services communicate with
other products and/or services.
Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC)
A machine or application that is made for one purpose only, e.g., ASIC Miners (BTC ETH LTC).
Taking advantage of prices in different exchanges. An
asset is immediately sold and bought to exploit a price for a return in profit.
ASIC-resistant is a property of some types of
cryptocurrency that makes ASICs negligible in terms of mining.
The lowest price a seller will accept for a certain
item or service.
Events that happen together or not at all. Requiring a form of computer control timing protocol in which a specific
operation begins upon receipt of an indication.
Technology in smart contracts that allows the
exchange of one type of cryptocurrency on one blockchain to another on a
completely different blockchain.
Vulnerability points software where information and
data can be extracted.
A public sale in which goods or property
are sold to the highest bidder.
The amount of tokens or currency one is holding in a
portfolio. Often referring to low performing assets that are left over.
A downwards trend in a market over an amount of time.
Usually describes a downwards trend of 20%.
A point of reference in which things can be assessed
and evaluated. Should be compared to an official standard.
Token standard on Binance Smart Chain that meets the
ERC- 20 standard. This defines how a token can be spent, who can spend it and
the layer of rules for transactions. This standard is similar to Binance’s
BEP-2 And Ethereum’s ERC-20 standard. BEP-20 Is compatible with both chains.
Previous token standard for enter.art. It
allows for the creation of Non-Fungible Tokens. This is also an extension of Ethereum’s
Combines the advantages of BEP-20
and BEP-721 into a single contract. Multi mint standard that is an answer to
the ERC-1155. Can be deployed on ecosystems that use both Fungible and Non-Fungible
A release of software that is in its early
stages, usually intended to be released to a subset of users to debug, test and
get feedback. Beta releases come after Alpha releases.
The highest price that a buyer or dealer would like
to spend on an asset.
The difference between the bid price from the buyer
and the ask price from the seller that appears on an order book.
The legacy crypto that was created by the mysterious
Satoshi Nakamoto. It was the first cryptocurrency that facilitated peer 2 peer
percentage of how much Bitcoin capitalizes in the entire cryptocurrency market.
The first known transaction where Bitcoin was exchanged
for physical goods. Laszlo Hanyecz paid 10,000 BTC for two pizzas.
Records some or all of the most recent blockchain
transactions that have not yet entered any prior blocks. A block is like a page
of a ledger or record book.
An online blockchain webpage that enables users to
search transactions and wallets across the network.
Used to identify a particular block located on a
blockchain. This is the information hashed to create “Proof of Work” for mining
The number that differentiates the current block from
the genesis block or block 0.
The amount of cryptocurrency that is awarded by the
blockchain for every mined and validated transaction/block.
A decentralized, digitized ledger that records
transaction information about a cryptocurrency in a chronological order.
Launched by Binance after an initial coin offering
that ended on July 3rd, 2017. Used for receiving exchange trading fee discounts
among other utilities.
A technical indicator that, when plotted, gives a good representation of whether the market is overbought or oversold. Made from a moving average and a band above and below the moving average.
A reward posted by a group or individual to
incentivize certain work, behavior (such as referrals), or development.
Break-Even Point (BEP)
The point where the total cost and revenue are equal.
The point when an asset makes an unpredicted move out
of a certain range or pattern, usually breaking a resistance or support.
An upwards trend in the market over a certain period
of time. Most commonly used in the crypto and stock market.
large or a single massive order set at the same price in an order book in a
in a graph that shows the high, low, open and closing prices in a certain
period of time.
To surrender or give up. Usually means when a
large group of investors sell all or most of their holdings in a single asset.
The property of a cryptocurrency network that prevents any
entity from altering transactions on it.
A national entity that provides banking and financial
structure for its country’s commercial banking sector as well as facilitating
the government's monetary policy and issuing fiat currency.
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
The brain of a computer. It is responsible for the
basic operations of the system. Interacts with the memory, peripherals and
manages the system's components.
encode, a secret way of writing; a code. A numeric character.
amount of tokens that are available for trade in an ecosystem.
The ability to store, access, and deliver services
through the internet. Most common resources include data storage, servers,
networking and software.
virtual currency that represents an asset or use and is stored on the blockchain.
An asset of value used as a security to secure
a loan. If the loan is not paid back the asset of value is then forfeited by
datacenter in which other businesses can rent space for servers and/or other
Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC)
U.S. governmental entity that regulates derivatives markets, including futures, options, and swaps.
The amount of time it takes for validators to record
a confirmed block from the time it is submitted to the network.
When two or more factors are used to predict a future
Consumer Price Index (CPI)
Used to track the difference in price of goods
or services over a period of time.
Any data that should be used to log into a system. i.e., usernames and passwords.
A virtual currency where transactions are verified by
a decentralized system that uses cryptography.
The study of being able to securely transmit
communication or data where only the sender and recipient are able to view its
The ownership of an asset or funds. Can also be used
when a business/entity holds on to an asset.
A process that runs in the background that will
execute when a specific operation is required.
Decentralized Application (DApp)
A software program that uses blockchain and smart
contracts to maintain decentralization. Most often stored on cloud platforms
and can operate on many systems at the same time.
Decentralized Autonomous Cooperative (DAC)
An organization that is controlled by shareholders rather
than a central authority.
Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO)
A system of hard-coded rules that define which
actions a decentralized organization will take.
Decentralized Exchange (DEX)
An exchange that offers traders to place and trade
cryptocurrencies without third party institutions controlling the funds or
Decentralized Finance (DeFi)
A financial system that operates without the need of
traditional banking or financial institutions. Most known for DeFi cryptocurrencies
but handle things like investing, insurance, borrowing, and lending in a
The act of converting encrypted data into its
The part of the World Wide Web that is not able to be
discovered by conventional search engines.
The take down of an asset off an exchange or official
register. Can be voluntary or involuntary.
Design Flaw Attack
An attack in which a bad faith actor purposely
creates malicious contracts, decentralized markets and other software with knowledge
of flaws and inconsistencies to trick users into making transactions in the
environment with little to no permissions.
For crypto, unit of measurement of time and
efficiency in mining blocks on a blockchain.
The increasing level of difficulty in crypto mining
that also results in a substantial increase in time to mine a block on a
blockchain. Specifically Ethereum.
market price and graph indicators are heading in separate and opposite
directions. Basically a disagreement in price between price and signals.
ability to move funds and assets to different markets that do not impact one
another, thus creating opportunities that are independent of one another.
Do Your Own Research (DYOR)
this. Read it again. One more time. :) This is the biggest fundamental in all
types of investing. Be knowledgeable about the space you want to occupy.
Dollar Cost Averaging (DCA)
Making multiple transactions of equal amounts over a
period of time, regardless of price.
A potential flaw in crypto currency in which an
amount of tokens can be spent multiple times. The most important thing to watch
out for during a 51% attack.
in which a bad faith actor will make sure that his target's connections are
surrounded and made on an attacker controlled node. Meant to isolate the target
and manipulate what information they receive.
Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH)
A financial theory that suggests that all known
information about investments is already factored into those securities. If
that holds true. No market analysis can give an individual an edge.
Taking plain text and scrambling it into an
unreadable format. This is the basis of blockchain.
Ethereum’s token standard for creating and making
Ethereum token standard for Non-Fungible Tokens. They
can have a different value but on the same smart contract.
Deemed "The Next Generation of
the multi-token standard. Uses a single contract to make various types of NFTs
and gives the ability to multi mint.
A marketplace for cryptocurrencies where users can
buy and sell coins.
a trader enters a position with anticipation of a future signal or price
movement, but the signal or movement doesn’t develop and moves in the opposite
A caution signal. This is a sharp drop but no
duration or magnitude. Investors are recommended to wait for the security at
its lowest point before investing again.
Fear Of Missing Out (FOMO)
The feeling of missing out on an opportunity after a
substantial rise in price.
Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt (FUD)
A strategy to evoke emotions in an investor to
put a competitor at a disadvantage.
Currency that has been disseminated from a central
Fill Or Kill Order (FOK)
A buy or sell order which must be executed immediately in
its entirety or else it will be cancelled.
First-Mover Advantage (FMA)
advantage of being first in a market or space. Being first typically allows
that company or entity to bring about brand recognition and customer loyalty
before it has a chance to be split among other companies.
Policy on how monetary matters are realized and
managed within an ecosystem.
The point when one legacy currency overtakes another
in market value. For example, when/if Ethereum overtakes Bitcoin in overall
When assets are sold without permission to create
cash flow because of an uncontrollable or unforeseen event.
Forex (Foreign Exchange Markets)
As currencies rate of trade are always “floating”.
This is an exchange of one currency into another for a specific rate.
Use of mathematical analysis to affirm or deny the
correctness of algorithms in an underlying system with certain formal variables
or properties using recognized methods of mathematics.
Fundamental Analysis (FA)
A way of measuring a “fair market” value in an asset
The ability to interchange one asset for another.
Meant to simplify the trade process. Implies that the assets are of equal
A contract that is an agreement to buy an asset or
good at a specific time and date for a fixed price.
The fee that is incurred for a user sending a virtual
currency. Depending on blockchain type gas and fee can be extremely different.
Gas was introduced by the Ethereum blockchain. Increasing that gas limit will
front run your transaction.
The maximum fee a user will pay to initiate a
transfer of virtual currency.
General Public License
Free license that is used with software. Allows all users
to make changes and share all versions. Generally used for open-source users
very first block in a blockchain. Denoted as 0 or null.
A pattern that develops in which an uptrending short
term moving average crosses the long term moving average. This is a bullish
signal. Long term signals generally carry more weight, however a cross
indicates a bull market is close.
The point where the rewards are cut in half in a
proof of work blockchain.
The ceiling of funds that a project, IPO, or ICO want
to collect during a fundraising event.
An essential function of crypto currency. Hash
outputs are always the same length regardless of input. This is the conversion
of input to output.
The rate in which computational power is measured.
Usually referenced in “per second”. Basically the measurement of calculations
by miners/validators that can be realized.
Hashed TimeLock Contract (HTLC)
Type of smart contract to eliminate risk by ensuring
the facilitation of time constrained transactions.
High-Frequency Trading (HFT)
use of high-powered main frames to conduct trading at a faster rate than is
generally recognized. Systems that are capable of doing many transactions per
ON FOR DEAR LIFE. Other than DYOR, this is the most important acronym in the crypto
Unchanging. The basis of blockchain and keeping a
ledger. Data in a blockchain cannot be changed as the block before reinforces
the transactions after.
A system that keeps track of assets or a conglomeration
Initial Coin Offering (ICO)
initial public offering of a coin to gain traction and fundability.
chain capability”. The function of users being able to send data and
information across decentralized systems without any third party.
InterPlanetary File System (IPFS)
How files are able to move across blockchain
networks. Uses existing protocols and enhances the way we use and share media.
The smallest measurable unit of BNB. 1 Jager = 0.00000001 BNB.
Know Your Customer (KYC)
The function of verifying one's identity.
Requirements of the AML required of all financial institutions.
solution that overlays an existing blockchain to provide better scalability and
physical or virtual “book” or list of transactions that is tracked and
recorded. For most blockchains the ledger is open and can be accessed by
function of converting or realizing an asset into ready cash or fiat.
completely interdependent system running its own ecosystem with its own
technology and variables.
Borrowing money from a broker to purchase an asset.
This can be dangerous as you can wipe out your whole portfolio.
The total value of an asset in a market. In crypto,
coin/token x the price = total value. The calculation of what a company is
worth on the open market.
An order in a market book for a sell or buy for the
markets best price at the current time.
The initial supply of tokens that were created for a
The function of mining two or more cryptos at the
same time without surrendering performance or profitability.
Information that describes such variables as date
created, file size, and keywords relating to a specific document.
process in which a transaction requires multiple signatures to complete a
A participant on the blockchain that validates
transactions. This secures and ensures the integrity of the blockchain and
Non-Fungible Token (NFT)
Proof of ownership that is minted on the blockchain.
The most secure way of proving that you own a specific digital asset, media, or
potentially a physical asset.
Transactions that occur on a cryptocurrency network
that moves the absolute value outside of the blockchain.
Open-Source Software (OSS)
Software or apps that are open to any user to modify
and share. Meant to facilitate and be distributed to any user that wants
A list of transactions of buys and sells for a given
asset. Generally electronically generated and ordered by price. Shows the
number of shares that are being bid on.
A way of storing
private keys for cryptocurrency by writing it on paper. It allows you to keep
your crypto in “cold storage”. It can be a handy security measure to keep your
private key or seed phrases safe.
Two or more participants that transfer data,
information or financial assets without a third party or intermediary. The
basis of why cryptocurrency and blockchain was invented.
A cryptocurrency that is designed to remain the same
value regardless of supply. Also
referred to as a stablecoin. i.e., 1 USDT, BUSD = 1 USD.
A bad faith practice that generally uses emails to
access information. These emails appear to be from reputable companies to trick
the user into giving important information such as credit card numbers and
The movement of price for an asset or good over a
given period of time. Generally the basis for all technical analysis of the
stock and cryptocurrency markets.
A form of cryptography that gives access and ability
to sign transactions on the blockchain. One of the most important factors in
blockchain and cryptocurrency. Used to encrypt and decrypt data.
opening stage for investors to buy a certain asset for new projects. Can also be
referred to as an ICO (Initial Coin Offering).
Proof of Stake (PoS)
Blockchain concept in which a user accumulates tokens
by holding them, which helps validate and process transactions.
Study of how to perform calculations based on an
object state before it is measured. Measured in qubits. Unlike bits where data
is computed with 1’s or 0’s these integers can be superpositional. More data
can be realized and expressed compared to the computational system we use now.
faith software in which the only intent is malicious. Access to the system is
compromised and blocked until a monetary sum is paid.
Relative Strength Index (RSI)
Financial indicator in technical analysis that measures
price change. Indicator to tell if a market is overbought or oversold at a
given time. Will also actualize the momentum of a given asset.
A function is technical analysis that generally
provides a ceiling to a particular asset for investment. A level in which an
asset needs to break though generally opposing a sell wall.
Return on Investment (ROI)
amount that is needed to even out the cost vs profit that is usually measured
in time. A good measure of how to gauge how profitable and/or efficient an
asset or investment is.
common practice that lays out goals and objectives that a project, company or
individual sets before them to achieve within a certain period of time.
smallest unit of a Bitcoin. 1 Satoshi =
mysterious creator of the first cryptocurrency, Bitcoin. No one knows the true
name of this person.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
National governmental agency that is responsible for
regulating corporate entities, securities, investments and market places in the
U.S. Charged with protecting the public's interest in investing.
analysis done by a company to prove the security and value of a project. Done
by an independent party that examines and scrutinizes the infrastructure and
establishes that the project complies with security policy and procedures.
Usually gives recommendations for changes and countermeasures to give the
project a higher level of security.
Series of words that gives you access to a
cryptocurrency wallet. They are randomly generated to give the best possible
security. NEVER EVER GIVE THIS TO ANYONE.
huge or multiple large sells on a market book for the same price. Tends to
suppress assets and forces them to be traded within a specific range. This can
be a bearish market indicator.
program or application stored on a blockchain that is fulfilled when
predetermined conditions are met. Meant to take out intermediary and third
capture of data at a certain time and date.
type of cryptocurrency that keeps value regardless of market fluctuation. See
pegged currency. 1 USDT = 1 USD.
A pool or merge of resources that is used to validate
blocks and receive rewards for holding or locking up assets for a period of
time. The more that is staked the larger the rewards.
Store of Value
An asset, commodity, or security that manages to keep
and maintain its value. There is no depreciation of value.
trading 'symbol' or shortened name (typically in capital letters) that refers
to a coin on a trading platform. For example: BNB.
A stand in for another asset. Generally, used for
investments to store value or to make purchases. Not to be confused with a
to a hold on an asset or currency for a determined amount of time where it cannot
The amount of tokens that are available to be spent,
whether in a liquid state or locked.
Transaction ID (TXID)
A string of characters or numerals that defines a
transaction. Used in all areas of finance and banking. In crypto it is the ID
used to access information on a transaction.
Transactions Per Second (TPS)
The number of transactions that a blockchain network is
capable of processing each second.
The core concept of blockchain, cryptocurrency and
smart contracts. This means that there is no need for a third party, and
transactions can be done without an intermediary.
Unit of Account
Standard measurement of value of services, goods, and
User Interface (UI)
way in which a user and software, website or hardware interact. The objective
is to be effective and demand the least amount of effort for the user to make
the most out of a specific outcome.
Uses software rather than hardware, usually from a
cloud computing platform, in order to provide accessibility to a user from
anywhere in the world. i.e., running multiple operating systems on a single
The amount of change that occurs in an ecosystem of
an asset or security. Gauge of movement in positive or negative means.
amount of currency, token, or coins that is traded in a specific amount of
time, usually 24 hours. Generally the higher the volume, the more liquidity is
An app that enables users to send and receive
transactions without a third party or intermediary.
Anyone who sells an asset before full functionality and
use case is realized. (Author's opinion.)
A user or group of users that holds a large amount of
specific cryptocurrency. At times, in some markets, they are able to manipulate
the price action.
A list of users that can be trusted or accepted to do transactions in an ecosystem. These users are usually predefined and accepted by an administrator or moderator.
Crypto & Learning
Hungry for knowledge? Here you can get acquainted with blockchain, wallet security, DeFi and much more.
PUBLISHED 13TH MAY 2022
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